Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Negative Effects Of Divorce - 1447 Words

Popular disputed subjects are argued every day, and in many cases these arguments can mean life or death. For example, people who view televised arguments often feel targeted for their beliefs. People have an opinion they want heard, which, in many circumstances, turns into a national debate. A well-known controversy that is increasing worldwide is divorce. Research has shown that there is a significant amount of effects on children after a divorce. This is most likely because of the mental and physical chaos the children are feeling. In many divorce cases, there are long-term effects that hinders children from having a peaceful adult-life. These effects include: relationship issues, inability to make a place feel like a home, and the†¦show more content†¦Because of sudden divorce, children always expect something to go wrong, which makes them vulnerable and insecure. In addition, many short-term effects are based off insecurity. A normal reaction from a child of recently di vorced parents is anger. Anger is most often the first emotion they use against their parents. This is because they do not know how to feel; their world has just been shaken, and they blame their parents for the inconvenience of the situation. Wallerstein later suggests in her article that â€Å"They are remarkable, really, in that they do for themselves what children really have a right to expect from their parents. They create their own morality† (Wallerstein). This statement contributes to the assumption that most children blame their parents, but it goes against the theory that, because of the divorce, the child was forced to grow up. They are just children trying to make sense of the sudden commotion in their life. At first, emotions overwhelm the child, leaving them with a feeling of abandonment. The next action made decides the future life of the children: custody. Custody battles are an increasingly relevant and an important aspect of divorce. AlthoughShow MoreRelated Negative Effects Of Divorce1475 Words   |  6 PagesDivorce is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, Divorce occurs after a husband and wife decide not to live together anymore and they do not want to marry one another. They agree to sign legal documents that allow them to marry other people if they so wish. Divorce is a problem that is increasing every year. It also affects our society, which most countries face. Divorce causes many negative effects, someRead MoreNegative Effects Of Divorce1718 Words   |  7 PagesDivorce is a controversial issue in the United States. On one side of the argument, some researchers claim that children of divorced parents are still able to adapt to their new environment and have an enhanced level of maturity, among other things. On the other hand, researchers like Karl Zinsmeister believe that the effects of divorce on children can never be fully overcome and marital conflicts cause significantly less damage to children than divorce does (Zinsmeister, 1996). The purpose of thisRead MoreNegative Effects of Divorce1303 Words   |  5 PagesDivorce c an be one of the biggest environmental pressures put on a child with lasting affects that can lead well into their adulthood. With an increase in the number of divorces taking place each year it is starting to become a major concern for not only children and their families but also for society as a whole. Every year around one million children are affected by divorce; furthermore when looking at this year alone half of the children born will see their parents divorce before they reach ageRead MoreThe Negative Effects Of Divorce1710 Words   |  7 PagesGetting a divorce is not an easy decision. As a matter of fact, for many people getting a divorce is one of the hardest things they will have to deal with. Divorce has a long-lasting effect on the entire family. For example, according to Clarke-Stewart and Brentano (2006, p. 56), the couple getting a divorce can feel anxious and depressed by the situation. They also mention that children can be the most affected because they might fe el confused and betrayed. However, the aftermath of divorce is differentRead MoreDivorce Negative Effects1285 Words   |  6 Pages2017 A Positive Outlook on a Divorce Divorce is always a dreadful experience in a persons life, especially a childs’. When parents divorce, children are left hopeless and confused. A divorce can cause a child to have a variety of different reactions. The effects on the child are much more important than the actual divorce. A divorce causes the most damage to the children in the divorce. Each child sees a divorce differently, but most divorces have a negative impact on the childs life. WhenRead MoreNegative Effects Of Divorce1409 Words   |  6 Pagesthe Center for Disease Control and Prevention 813,862 divorces have been granted in 45 out out the fifty states in 2017 alone (Marriage and Divorce). Around half of those divorces will involve children. With divorce becoming a prominent phenomenon it has become increasingly important for the two parties involved to remain courteous. Children’s lives are easily impacted when they are forced to go through this life altering situation. Divorce can inflict damage both mentally and psychologically. WhenRead MoreThe Negative Effects of Divorce689 Words   |  3 PagesWith approximately 876,000 divorces per year in the United States alone, many people today are bringing up the controversial topic: should divorces be made harder to obtain? Many people think that it would be best if families stayed together, while others believe that an unhappy marriage is useless, and the dissolution of the marriage is the best choice. However, with current laws being the way they are, the process of getting a divorce is too simple, which is why people tend to opt out of theirRead MoreThe Negative Effects Of Divorce1089 Words   |  5 Pagesending a marriage, but it can no longer ignore the massive effects that come with it, especially to children. To the parents, the effect is separation from one another. To the children, the effects include engaging in drug abuse to get over the emotional turmoil, committing a crime to earn money to support the family, and performing poorly in school, especially in spelling, reading, and mathematics (Scott et al., 2014). With the rate of divorce increasing rapidly in the country, children are going toRead MoreNegative Effects Of Divorce On Children1072 Words   |  5 PagesWhat are the Negative Effects of Divorce on Children When I was five years old I was forced to make a choice. This was a choice many children should not have to make and can never really be prepared for. My parents were getting a divorce and they decided it was in my best interests to give me the option to live with whomever I chose. It was a burden that to this day affects my relationship with one of my parents. Ultimately, I chose to live with my mother and from then on, my father would barelyRead MoreThe Negative Effect of Divorce on Children Essay941 Words   |  4 PagesThe Negative Effect of Divorce on Children Divorce has a negative effect on the psychological and social aspects of our children, which may appear instantly or not come to the surface for years. This is why I think that divorce should only be a last resort and not rushed into even by couples with the most troubled marriages. The only acceptable reason for someone rushing into divorce is if they or their children are in danger. I believe that marriage is a commitment not to be taken lightly and

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Andrea Di Pietro Della Gondola - 1442 Words

The Renaissance produced one of the most influential figures with great skill and craftsmanship. Andrea Di Pietro della Gondola known as Andrea Palladio born in November 8, 1508 in Padua was one of the most influential figures of the Renaissance architecture. At age thirteen Palladio was a stone cutter and then moved nearby Venice. During his training in the Northern Italy in Vicenza in 1524, Palladio was trained as a stonemason and later on his patron, Giangiorgio Trissino, granted Palladio an opportunity to study the Ancient architecture in Rome where he was influenced by the Roman and Greek architecture. After his returned Venice and his connection between people he was name Proto della Serenissima means the Chef architect of the Republic of Venice and around 1541 Palladio began to developed his own style which became a success in the America. Since his returned from his study in Rome, Palladio had been throughout the city of Vicenza where he almost completely restore and reconstructed the Vicenza’s city. In 1554, Palladio published a guidebook Le antichita di Roma. During his time in Venice, Palladio began his first architecture in 1560 of the Monastery of S. Giorgio Maggiore and completed in 1562 where he continued his work and reconstructed the Church of S. Giorgio Maggiopre in 1607 and completed in 1610. With the big influence of the Roman and Greek architecture and his connection, Palladio became well known and began his architecture in 1541, called The PalladianShow MoreRelatedAndre The Last Of The Great Humanist Architects1351 Words   |  6 Pagesmost important of all, Andrea Palladio. Widely regarded as the most influential and famous architect in the Western world, Andrea Palladio was â€Å"the last of the great Humanist architects† (Trachtenburg, 2002, p. 311). Since it is impossible to encompass all of Palladio’s accomplishments in one single essay, this paper will aim to give a detailed overview of Andrea’s early life, influences, greatest works, and his Palladian following. Originally born Andrea Di Pietro della Gondola in Padua, Italy, Palladio

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Leadership Is Not Changed Over The Course Of Time - 952 Words

The definition of leadership has not changed over the course of time. Through a compare and contrast method of analysis, one can glean the common traits of a leader from Shakespeare’s Macbeth, Thomas More’s Utopia, and Queen Elizabeth’s speech to the Spanish Armada. Leadership can be defined as a person who is able to relate to their subjects, accept their responsibilities as a leader, and has a following of supportive people. In Queen Elizabeth’s speech to her troops at Tilbury, she evinces her positive leadership ability. Queen Elizabeth was well known, by the public, for her ability to relate to her people. She was able relate to her troops, and thus inspire them, in particular during this speech when she says, â€Å"...and therefore I am†¦show more content†¦More focuses his essay on the wrongs the current king was committing, thus he illustrates what a good leader should not do. More establishes that a leader must take responsibility for the ir followers. They must accept their role in society and be willing to put their people s’ needs before their own as he says, â€Å"Suppose I should show that men choose a king for their own sake and not for his - to be plain, that by his labor and effort they may live well and safe from injustice and wrong. For this very reason, it belongs to the king to take more care for the welfare of his people than for his own...† (More 438). By encouraging leaders to increase their effectiveness through the largesse treatment of their subjects, Moore helps to define leadership for us all. In Shakespeare’s Macbeth, Macbeth validates exactly what a leader should not do. As a leader, one of the most important tasks one can complete is to have a following of loyal people. That means people who follow the actions of the leader, whether they agree or not, and follow the orders they are given. At the beginning of the play, Macbeth, who was the Thane of Glamis, successfully had a large following of people. Slowly, as the play continues, he loses his supporters. In Act 5, readers are able to see his soldiers are joining Macduff’s army to fight against Macbeth. â€Å"For, where there is advantage to be given, / Both more and less have given him the revolt, / And none serve

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Hotel and Hospitality Management Restaurant

Question: Discuss about theHotel and Hospitality Managementfor Restaurant. Answer: Introduction The aim of the paper is to present a report on food and beverage operations in a restaurant. Through an in depth analysis, the aim is to give a comprehensive insight into the multifaceted nature of opening a restaurant. For this purpose, the restaurant that would be chosen in Australia is Guzmen Y Gomez. A restaurant needs proper management to work efficiently. The paper would lay emphasis on the importance of product differentiation, cost management, and staff management strategies adopted by restaurants and food chains in this industry. Moreover, the aim is to get a detailed understanding of the emerging and current trends and technologies that help to shape the industry. A number of tools and theories would be employed in the paper to carry out a detailed analysis such as PESTLE Analysis, Porters Five Forces and VRIO theory. Also, the tangible and intangible nature of the food and beverage industry shall be identified. The food and beverage industry in Australia includes categorie s like grains, meat, dairy, seafood, horticulture, confectioneries, and beverages. The industry provides a diverse range of products to the food and retail services. There is a lot of flexibility in the food and beverage sector in Australia and is a great contributor of the Australian economy. Australia has the reputation of providing clean and healthy food products to its citizens. Food and Beverage Management Functions Concept The food and beverage operations comprise the internal functions of an organization. Management functions involve organizing, planning, recruiting and training the staff. Managers in the food and beverage sector need to manage the day to day operations that undertake in a hotel or restaurant. It is the job of the manager to provide excellent internal and external customer service. The food and beverage operations environment has basically two functions- management and operations. Both these functions are necessary and strive to achieve operational objectives. The management function involves organizing, planning, controlling, and leading an organization. On the other hand, operational function deals with the input, transformation, and output. In short, it follows the system approach model. Costing Food and beverage costing structure depends on different pricing strategies of the foods as well s the cost of maintaining the hotel operations. The restaurant specializes in Tex-Mex dishes such as nachos, burritos, quesadillas and taco. The costing of hotel operations depends on the profitability of the hotel. Costing is an important management function of a restaurant that falls under food and beverage management operations. Maintenance of cost on adopting different types of strategies by the strategic department of the company is included in the cost management functions (Grekova et al., 2014). Lowering the cost of different functions of hotels will result into higher profitability. Strategy Strategies of food and beverage management operations can include various types of strategies that include the management of the operations. Different departments of a company have to run smoothly if the company has to work in a focused way. The management department of the company has to undertake different long term and short-term strategies that are focused on the current scenario of the market and the company. The HR functions as well as the strategic management department have to formulate the strategies that are related to the organizational goals (Wu et al., 2013). However, organizational goals are related to the market conditions of the country. Marketing Marketing strategies of the sector including the company must adopt different traditional methods of marketing as well as the digital media marketing. The restaurant chain also focus on excellent customer service as Word of Mouth (WOM) promotion will come from the mouth of the satisfied guests of the restaurant. It goes with other companies of food and beverage companies. If the consumers are satisfied with the products served by the companies then they will say it to their relatives and peers (Dora et al., 2013). Appropriate selection of both traditional legacy media and digital media is essential for formulating effective marketing strategy. Key Skills and Resources in Food and Beverage Operations Many skills and resources are required in managing food and beverage operations. Food service managers maintain the operation of the restaurant. However, food service managers must have in depth knowledge about different types of incidents inside the restaurant. Decisions are to be made based on the different aspects of hotel management operations. The knowledge of administration, management, personal and customer service, training and education, processing and production, food production, sales and marketing, telecommunications, psychology and leadership are required for managing the operations of food and beverage sector (Grekova et al., 2016). Apart from that, many skills are necessary for the maintenance of the different operations of food and beverage. Skills and resources of the company imply the human capital resources of the employees present in it. Human capital is a popular concept that is focused on different concepts of the operations of the company. The restaurant must put emphasize on the skills and attributes of the company that are considered as the most valuable assets of the company (Hurrell Scholarios, 2014). The different levels of management have different responsibilities regarding managing various aspects of the company. Key skills and resources include mostly the intangible resources of the company i.e. the skills and assets of the employees who are responsible for managing the business operations. The companys physical assets are also responsible for the management of different operational procedures. More is the income of the company stronger will be the operations of the food and beverage companies . However, the company is putting stress on the different human capital skills of the company. The skills of the employees include service orientation, critical thinking, time management, social perceptiveness, active listening, reading comprehension, operations analysis, learning strategies, system analysis, management of financial and material resources, systems evaluation, operation monitoring, quality control analysis, persuasion and instructing (Graham Potter, 2015). The above-mentioned skills are essential for managing different levels of operations of the company in the food and beverage sector in a perfect manner. Managers possessing these skills and knowledge must be having good leadership and decision-making power that will result in formulating strategies in different sectors of operations for the restaurant chain effectively. PESTLE Analysis Political- The season of national elections can affect the food and restaurant industry negatively. This is more prominent when it comes to selling liquor. Childhood obesity, menu labeling, diseases related to diet, allergen concerns, and food regulations and safety are some of the issues that affect the food and beverage industry largely. There may also be taxing issues (Ab Talib et al., 2014). Economical- The Australian food and beverage sector is a great contributor to the economy of Australia. This sector provides employment to the citizens of the country. However, the output generated from this sector saw a decline in the year 2012. Moreover, the input cost of the industry is rising. The income and GDP of Australia is quite high. Social- The opportunities in the food and beverage sector in Australia is rising. There is a growth in the demand of food both nationally as well as globally. An increase in the demand of high quality products and rise of the middle classes has been a positive impact on the industry. The high level of income of Australian people prompts them to buy healthier food than cheap street food (Gregoric, 2014). Technological- Growth in technology in the modern times has changed the mode of working in the food and beverage industry. People nowadays, especially the young generation rely heavily on internet and online shopping. They prefer to order food online rather than going to a restaurant due to crunch of time. Thus, more development in the delivery system would help this industry to develop as well. Legal- The Food Safety Standards of Australia lays great emphasis on the quality and nutrition value of the food. The government has imposed various safety regulations and the hotels and restaurants must comply with those regulations. The aim is to provide a safe, healthy, and hygienic food to the people and lower the incidents of food poisoning and illness. Food businesses in Australia need to comply with the food regulations act of the Australian government. Moreover, restaurants and bars selling liquor must get authentic license from the government (O'Kane, 2012). Environmental- The waste generated from the hotels and restaurants may have a severe impact on the environment if not disposed properly. To provide an environmentally healthy service, the use of plastics for packaging must be minimized. More environment friendly practices must be implemented. Porters Five Forces The Porters Five Forces tool is a very powerful tool to understand and assess the position and power of a business. It helps a company to understand the competitive strength and weakness. Threat of New Entrants- Australia has proven to be an attractive place for setting up new business as Australia has very few entry barriers. The existing companies may thus face the threat of new entrants. Since the Australian market yields high returns and less loss, the market is prone to attract businesses from all over the world. However, a large number of firms may decrease the profitability for all. This can be reduced by blocking new firms to enter the market through incumbents (Dobbs, 2014). Threat of Substitutes- Existence of products on large scale increases the competition. Customers often switch to alternatives when they find a product of better quality. The threat of substitutes is high as there are many other competitors of Guzmen Y Gomez in the Australian market. Bargaining power of Buyers- Buyers in Australia have the power to switch companies as they have a lot of options. They may prefer one restaurant or hotel or bar over another. This makes the power of the power of the customers very high. In short, they have high bargaining power. The bargaining power of the buyers depends on the availability of information to the buyers, differential advantage, and the customer value (Porter Heppelmann, 2014). Bargaining power of Suppliers- The relation of the suppliers with the restaurant is very good. This helps the industry to grow. The suppliers comprise the raw material providers, labor, and services. The bargaining power of the suppliers is low which helps the industry to grow. Industry rivalry- Industry rivalry is one of the major determinants of the success of a company. The Australian food and beverage industry has a number of hotels and restaurants. This increases the competition between the companies. There is rivalry on different areas such as in the level of expenditure in advertisement, degree of transparency, and the competitive strategy of a company (McLay, 2014). VRIO Theories VRIO framework is a theoretical tool that is used to analyze the internal capabilities and resources of the firm in order to find a sustainable competitive advantage of the company in the industry. It is a tool for measuring the internal environment of the company. Full form of VRIO model is valuable, rarity, imitate, organized and sustained competitive advantage. Valuable: It refers to the resources that are responsible for creating value to the organization. The internal resources will be valuable when they are used in increasing perceived customers value in the market. It can be done while increasing product differentiation or decreasing the price of the food items (Killen et al., 2012). Rare: The internal resources of the company must be rare so that other competitors cannot imitate their strategies and resources. The resources will act as a competitive advantage to the company in the marketplace. On the other hand, when the competitors use same type of resources then it will lead to competitive parity. However, selecting rarity among the commonly used resources is the secret of success of the company in the competitive marketplace (Rothaermel, 2015). Costly to Imitate: The resources of the restaurant should be portrayed in a way so that competitors cannot imitate it. The different types of complexities a company can face while imitating ones strategies and resources to it. They are casual ambiguity, historical conditions and social complexity (Knott, 2015). Organized in capturing value: The restaurant will capture the value of the strategies and resources, when the other four factors will be successful. The restaurant must organize their management processes, systems, organizational structure, policies and organizational culture fully in order to realize the potentiality of valuable, rarity and imitation costs of its capabilities and resources (Pesic et al., 2013). Critical Reflection on Tangible and Intangible Nature of Food and Beverage Operations In the hospitality industry, both tangible and non tangible services are highly important. The entire industry of hospitality is based on the tangible and intangible services. To be successful a hotel or restaurant or bar must have both tangible and intangible services. It is the both these services that make the experience of the customers worth remembering. These services refer to both the physical services and the interpersonal contact between the service providers and the customers. The tangible elements comprise the food that is presented to the customers. The goods including the nature and style of the crockery, glassware, napkins, linen, and cutlery are a part of the total experience (Davis et al., 2013). The menu is also a part of the tangible services for it is because of the menu that the customers are able to gain knowledge about the food they are going to have. It gives them a partial idea about the experience they are going to have. The customers get information through verbal or visual description of the meals or dishes that are available. The machine process is also a part of the total experience. This includes every tool and machine that is used to prepare a food item. This may include coffee machine, gas oven, vending machine, etc (Tamwatin et al., 2015). The action and services of the staff in a restaurant are of crucial importance and form a part of the intangible services. The intangible services comprise the overall environment offered by a restaurant or hotel. Every place has its own aesthetic appeal which is created by the furniture, dcor, and fittings (Giritlioglu et al., 2014). The warm and friendly feel of the restaurant determines the hospitality of a place. One place may give a customer a warm and amiable experience while another may give a cold feeling to its customers. Hence it is very important to establish appropriate furnish and dcor so that the customers get a warm and friendly feeling. This makes the experience of the customers far better. The cleanliness and brightness of the environment is also very crucial for a better experience. The organization of the service process is also considered a tangible process (Mari? et al., 2016). Conclusion The report is on the analysis of food and beverage sector of Australia. Different sectors of the industry in analyzed by considering an example of a restaurant based in Australia. The restaurant has its different branches not only in Australia but also in other parts of the world. However, different parts of the management functions are analyzed in terms of various theoretical frameworks such as VRIO framework, Porters five forces, PESTEL Analysis, etc. These theoretical frameworks explain both the internal environment as well as external environment of the food and beverage sector i.e. in terms of the restaurant in Australia. Apart from that, there are many strategic optional and key skills and resources are mentioned in details along with their key roles while developing different sections of management and different operations of the restaurant. The importance of the human capital resources are mentioned in the report so that the restaurant can identify them and use them properly in required places so that they can get effective results out from it. However, the sector must follow the recent consumer trends that will help them to attract different segments of customers in the country. Innovation will help the company not only to increase the segment of customers but also for the increase of profitability of the company. References Ab Talib, M. S., Hamid, A. B. A., Zulfakar, M. H., Jeeva, A. S. (2014). Halal logistics PEST analysis: the Malaysia perspectives.Asian Social Science,10(14), 119. Davis, B., Lockwood, A., Pantelidis, I., Alcott, P. (2013).Food and beverage management. Routledge. Dora, M., Kumar, M., Van Goubergen, D., Molnar, A., Gellynck, X. (2013). Food quality management system: Reviewing assessment strategies and a feasibility study for European food small and medium-sized enterprises.Food control,31(2), 607-616. Dobbs, M. (2014). Guidelines for applying Porter's five forces framework: a set of industry analysis templates.Competitiveness Review,24(1), 32-45. Giritlioglu, I., Jones, E., Avcikurt, C. (2014). Measuring food and beverage service quality in spa hotels: A case study in Bal?kesir, Turkey.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,26(2), 183-204. Graham, S., Potter, A. (2015). Environmental operations management and its links with proactivity and performance: A study of the UK food industry.International Journal of Production Economics,170, 146-159. Gregoric, M. (2014, January). PESTEL analysis of tourism destinations in the perspective of business tourism (MICE). InFaculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism Hospitality Industry(p. 551). University of Rijeka, Faculty of Tourism Hospitality Management. Grekova, K., Bremmers, H. J., Trienekens, J. H., Kemp, R. G. M., Omta, S. W. F. (2014). Extending environmental management beyond the firm boundaries: An empirical study of Dutch food and beverage firms.International Journal of Production Economics,152, 174-187. Grekova, K., Calantone, R. J., Bremmers, H. J., Trienekens, J. H., Omta, S. W. F. (2016). How environmental collaboration with suppliers and customers influences firm performance: evidence from Dutch food and beverage processors.Journal of Cleaner Production,112, 1861-1871. Hurrell, S. A., Scholarios, D. (2014). The People Make the Brand Reducing Social Skills Gaps Through Person-Brand Fit and Human Resource Management Practices.Journal of Service Research,17(1), 54-67. Killen, C. P., Jugdev, K., Drouin, N., Petit, Y. (2012). Advancing project and portfolio management research: Applying strategic management theories.International Journal of Project Management,30(5), 525-538. Knott, P. J. (2015). Does VRIO help managers evaluate a firms resources?.Management Decision,53(8), 1806-1822. Mari?, D., Marinkovi?, V., Mari?, R., Dimitrovski, D. (2016). Analysis of Tangible and Intangible Hotel Service Quality Components.Industrija,44(1). McLay, A. (2014). Re-reengineering the dream: agility as competitive adaptability.International Journal of Agile Systems and Management,7(2), 101-115. O'Kane, G. (2012). What is the real cost of our food? Implications for the environment, society and public health nutrition.Public Health Nutrition,15(02), 268-276. Pesic, M. A., Milic, V. J., Stankovic, J. (2013). Application Of Vrio Framework For Analyzing Human Resourcesrole In Providing Competitive Advantage.Tourism Management Studies, 575-586. Porter, M. E., Heppelmann, J. E. (2014). How smart, connected products are transforming competition.Harvard Business Review,92(11), 64-88. Rothaermel, F. T. (2015).Strategic management. McGraw-Hill. Tamwatin, U., Trimetsoontorn, J., Fongsuwan, W. (2015). The effect of tangible and intangible service quality on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty: a SEM approach towards a five-star hotel in Thailand.Journal for Global Business Advancement,8(4), 399-419. Wu, P. H., Huang, C. Y., Chou, C. K. (2014). Service expectation, perceived service quality, and customer satisfaction in food and beverage industry.International Journal of Organizational Innovation (Online),7(1), 171.

Saturday, April 4, 2020

Railway Requirements Analysis and Reservation Essay Example

Railway: Requirements Analysis and Reservation Essay Railway Reservation System Requirements Specification Table of Contents 1. Introduction3 1. 1Goals and Purpose3 1. 2Scope of Project3 1. 3Definiton Abbreviations4 1. 4 References 1. 5Overview4 2. Overall Description5 2. 1Product Perspective 2. 2 Product Function 2. 3 User Characteristics 2. 4 General Constraints 2. 5 Assumptions Dependencies 5 3. Specific Requirement6 3. 1External Interface Requirement6 3. 1. 1 User Interface 3. 1. 2 Hardware Interface 3. 1. 3 Software Interface 3. 1. 4 Communication Interface 3. 2Functional Reqiuerment7 3. 3Performance Requirement8 3. 4Design Requirement 3. Attributes 3. 6 Others Requiremnt 9 Requirement Specification Introduction The Railway Reservation System is an online application for assisting user or railway manager in managing reservation in a Railway Department. The system would provide basic set of features to conduct reservation or cancellation, train scheduling timing, search for available reservation, and manage check-in / checkout pr ocesses. The following document provides the key requirements specifications for the system based on the client’s statement of need. Goals and Purpose The Railway Reservation system would have the following key goals: Provide a GUI for user to interface with the backend database Screens to reservation/cancellation database Screens to train schedule Screens to search for a train/seats based on user driven parameters Minimize the overall time 2 Scope of Project The main scope and deliverables of the project would be: Easy, Fast and efficient working Easy way for cancellation and reservation of the tickets. Get exact information about trains, available seat, charges, etc. Faster communication The key milestones and deliverables of the project would be as follows: |Tasks |Deliverable |Due date | |Prepare detailed user |User Requirements Specification |, 2008 | |requirements document | | | |Review the requirements and |Requirements Review Checklist | | |update the requirements document |Template. | | |and obtain client sign-off |Updated URS (Version 2. ) | | |High Level Design of application |HLDD | | |system | | | |Test Plan for application |Test Plan Document | | |Detailed Design Document |Unit Design Document | | |Prototype |Code GUI screens | | |Test Cases and Report |Test report | | |System Demo |Demonstration | | 1. 3. Definition Abbreviations AARS: Automated Railway Reservation System 3 References Railway reservation website Google Books 1. 5 Overview The product of the requirements elicitation process is requirements document, which include functional requirements, interface requirements, performance requirements, design constraints, Preliminary Object-Oriented D omain Analysis, operational scenarios and others requirements. Overall Description 1 Product Perspective We will write a custom essay sample on Railway: Requirements Analysis and Reservation specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Railway: Requirements Analysis and Reservation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Railway: Requirements Analysis and Reservation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The Automated Railway Reservation System diagram showing the overview of the system’s modules and the relationship of the system to external interfaces is presented in Figure 2. 1. [pic] Functions of System Components: Database: †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Stores data †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Creates reports †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Provides access to data †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Updates information Server: †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Provides access to the database †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Authenticates users †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Processes reservations †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Performs backups †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Produces reports External Interfaces: Terminal †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Users use terminals to access the server †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Passengers and travel agents use terminals to reserve the tick ets and to get information about the available seats on particular trains. †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Railroad administration may use terminals to see the reports generated by the database software. Personal Computers †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Users (passengers, travel agents, and railroad administration) may use personal computers to obtain a remote access to the server and the reservation database via the Internet. Cell Phones †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Server as a medium of accessing the server and the reservation database. †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Passengers may use cell phones and the latest telecommunication technologies to access the server and the reservation database via Internet, or they may use cell phones to call travel agents to inquire about railroad and ticket information. Computer Hardware and Peripheral Equipment to be used: †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   32 workstations, which include CPUs, monitors, keyboards, and mice †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Printers †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Network †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Terminals †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Cell phones to test connection to the server via remote access 2 Product Functions. The product main function is to provide functionality to overcome the problem which is faced by the existing system. This product helps any type of user to know each and every thing regarding reservation in any train. It also helps to provide information regarding railways by means of phone so that work can done fast and in very efficient manner. 3 User Characteristics The main users of the system will be the passengers buying train tickets, the travel agents that process reservations for passengers, and the CRM administration that access the reports generated by the system. The users are not required to have knowledge in the computer field. The graphical interface provides an easy way of using the ARRS system with minimum of training. 4 General Constraints. The Product is developed using Microsoft Visual Basic 6. 0. The backend database for this SQL Server. The product is accomplished with login facility so that specific function is available to specific users . Under this hardware, software and design constraints we consider. 2. 5 Assumptions and dependencies The assumptions for the project are: †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are five classes of tickets as listed below ?  ¦Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Sleeping (soft) compartment style coaches 4 passenger per compartment ?  ¦Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Sleeping (hard) compartment style coac hes 6 passenger per compartment ?  ¦Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Sitting (soft) typical first class coach ?  ¦Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Sitting (hard) tourist class couch ?  ¦Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Standing (hard and soft sitting coaches only) †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Reservation can be made up to one month before a particular trip. †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Seats are assigned during reservation. †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Phone reservation involves tickets being purchased within 24 hours after making the reservation. Otherwise, the reservation will be cancelled. †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   No reservations can be made 48 hours prior to the trip. Rather, it will be done on a first come first serve basis from that point on. †¢ †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Passenger lists will be provided for conductors at each stop. 3. External Interface Requirement 3. 1. 1 User Interfaces User Interface plays the most important role for communication between user and software product. The interface should present and acquire information in a consistent fashion. 3. 1. 2 Hardware Interfaces ? Operating System: Windows XP/ME ? Processor: Pentium   3. 0 GHz ? RAM: 256 Mb ? Hard Drive: 10 GB 3. Software Interfaces  ¬Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Database: SQL Server.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Application: Visual Basic 3. 2. Functional Requirements This list of Functional and non functional requirements which are applicable to the Railway Reservation System. This s ection should describe a set of scenarios that illustrate, from the users perspective, what will be experienced when utilizing the system under various situations. In the broad sense, a scenario is simply a proposed specific use of the system. A set of scenarios is represented below_: Use Case: Indian Railways provides for advance reservation on all long-distance travel. The passenger seeking reservation of berth or seats should purchase the tickets from Railway Reservation Offices . To make an advance booking, the passenger is expected to fill in a prescribed application form and submit it to the reservation counter with the appropriate amount. Advanced Reservations are made up to 60 days in advance for all trains, for all classes exclusive of the day of departure of trains. An individual can book only up to six passengers on one requisition form provided all passengers are for the same destination and for the same train. Indian Railways wishes to develop a ticketing and reservation system. This must support advance booking of tickets, cancellation of tickets and change of class of a ticket. All these are handled by a Reservation Clerk. The system will also have a web-interface where users can register themselves and purchase tickets online. They can pay either by using their online banking account or by credit card or by VPP. Reservations made over the internet can only be cancelled across the counter. The system will also have a querying facility that allows users to check train time-tables, fares and availability of tickets. Identify the Actors:- The actors in the system are the passenger, the counter clerk and the reservation system consisting of form processing, reservation, fare computation, ticket processing, ticket printing, collection of fare amount and posting as sub-systems. The passenger is a passive user–actor who initiates the process and obtains the ticket(s), a goal of measurable value. The counter clerk is an active user–actor, who triggers the system and has the role of issuing the tickets with the responsibility of collecting the correct fare amount from the passenger, which is a measurable value. Predesigned and deployed ticket reservation system at the back end is a system actor–user to ensure that ticket processing is done correctly and different system status are updated on issuing of tickets. This actor has an active role and responsibility at the back end. Table:- |User |Roles |Use Case | |1)Person |a)Enquiry |a)Enquire ticket availability and other | | |b)Reservation Ticketing |details. | |c)Cancellation |b)Reserve seats and berths, tickets | | | |c) Cancel tickets | |2)Counter clerk |a)Form data entry |a) Enter Reservation Requisition Form | | |b) Requisition processor booking |b) Process requisition for booking | | |c)Ticket processor |c)Process ticket to print | | |d) Data manager |d) Submits ticket data for updation | |3)Reservation and ticketing system |System server a) Process reservation data, process | | | |ticketing system ticketing process | | | |cancellation | | | |b) Update the status by date, train, etc. | The system has three users, eight roles and eleven use cases. To illustrate the Process of identifying the use cases, let us take the passenger (a user of the system). A passenger as a user may play one or more of three roles. The roles are 1. Enquiring about the availability of tickets on particular dates to a destination and the fare per ticket. The role is enquiring. 2. Reserving the ticket(s) on a particular train on particular date for a destination by requisitioning through a reservation form The role is reserving and booking tickets. 3. Cancelling the tickets after issuing and payment The role is cancelling 1) Use Case:Make Reservation Actors: Passenger, Reservation Clerk Purpose:Reserve a seat or berth Overview:Allows the user to make a reservation for a journey. Normal Flow: 1. User logs in 2. User specifies the train and journey details 3. User specifies passenger details 4. User specifies payment details 5. User confirms transaction 2) Use Case: Cancel Reservation Actors: Reservation clerk, Passenger Purpose: Cancel the ticket Overview:Allows the user to cancel a reservation for a journey. Normal Flow: 1. User logs in 2. User specifies the train and journey details. 3. Clerk checks the time and date of ticket 4. If date is passed there is no meaning of cancelation and if the date is not passed the clerk deducts some transaction fee and returns the remaining amount. 5. Ticket is cancelled. 3) Use Case: Modify class Actors: Reservation clerk, Passenger Purpose: Modify the ticket class Overview: Allows the user to modification of the class according to user demand for a journey. Normal Flow: 1. User logs in 2. User specifies the train and journey details. 3. User specifies payment details 4. User specifies the train detail according to class 4) Use Case: Print ticket Actors: Reservation clerk, passenger Purpose: print the ticket Overview: Allows the user to give the ticket to the passenger for a journey. Normal Flow: 1. User logs in. 2. User specifies the train and journey details. 3. User specifies payment details 4. Reservation clerk print the ticket according to users details 5) Use case: Query Timetable Actors: User, Query counter clerk Purpose: To give the details of train to the passenger for journey Normal Flow:- 1) User log in ) User specifies the particular train details 3) User gets the record according to the train 6) Use case: Check seat Availability Actors: User, Reservation Clerk Purpose: To give information regarding seat availability Normal Flow:- 1) User logs in. 2) User specifies Train details. 3) Check the available seats and reserved seats. 7) Use case: Check Fare Actors: User, Reservation counter clerk Purpose: To give the details of fare to the passenger for journey Normal Flow:- 1) User log in 2) User specifies the particular train details 3) Check the fare 4) User gets the record according to the train 5) Make the reservation 3 Performance Requirements The proposed system that we are going to develop will be used as the Chief performance system within the campus which interacts with the staff and students. Therefore, it is expected that the database would perform functionally all the requirements that are specified by the campus. 1. Design Requirements The proposed system is fully automated. It will give quick response and retrieval time. As everything is automated, not much of human help needed. The data is less questionable when working with computers. The calculations done are more precise and accurate. The processing is easy and usable. The new system is adaptable and can easily be changed according to the user’s need. There is no repetition of data occurs. The data is in Consistent state. 3. 4 Attributes Requirements

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Writing That Is Logical and Coherent

Writing That Is Logical and Coherent According to the 18th century English minister Isaac Watts, It was a saying of the ancients, Truth lies in a well; and to carry on this metaphor, we may justly say that logic does supply us with steps, whereby we may go down to reach the water. Whatever we are writing, our readers will only reach the water, or understand what we have written, if our writing is logical. If we are writing to entertain, our readers may just give up if they find our writing hard to follow. If our technical or academic writing lacks logic, they may have no choice but to struggle for comprehension. However, in either case, without a logical development of the material, our message may be lost, causing the objective of our writing to go unfulfilled.There are several logical methods that we can use to organize our writing. If we are telling a story, we might relate the events in chronological order. For instance, a biography would logically start with the individuals birth and end with their death, with the story of their life told in between. A fictional story would likewise progress from beginning to end, with events related in chronological order.In academic papers, the problem and solution method is often used. The introduction might give the reasons that the writers felt that a particular line of research was needed. This usually includes an outline of the work that has already been done in this area, with the limitations and failings of this research. The rest of the paper then gives a detailed explanation of the solution that the writers have come up with to solve these problems.The cause and effect method is very similar to the problem and solution method. This might be used for an article in a medical journal. The article could begin with a description of a particular lifestyle and then move on to describe the effects of this lifestyle. A more technical article might introduce a new drug and then give a detailed explanation of the effects of this drug.Technical documents, such as manuals or newsletters, often use a topical approach. For example, a software manual may be divided into sections, with each section explaining a different feature of the software. Providing a table of contents in the front and an index in the back allows a reader to easily turn to a specific topic.Of course, these are just examples. Other methods are also available and the methods mentioned above may be used for other forms of writing. The point is: does what weve written approach the subject in a logical way? Is the material organized so that it makes sense to the reader? Do they understand how we got from point A to point B? Does it accomplish what were seeking to accomplish? Does it entertain? Does it explain? Does it educate?In addition to applying logic to the overall organization of our writing, each section, paragraph, and individual sentence should also be logical. This seems like an obvious point. Every writer wants to be understood; he wants his writing to make sense. Yet often, even when all the facts are present, they are difficult to comprehend. For a piece to make sense, it must be coherent. The parts must be logically connected, they must stick together. You might compare this to a jigsaw puzzle. For a jigsaw puzzle or a piece of writing, to make sense, obviously, the pieces must all be there. Yet more is required. The pieces must also be put together in the proper order, and if a piece doesnt fit, it has to either be left out or moved to a place where it will fit. If these rules are not followed, the resulting picture will be difficult to discern.A common mistake in writing is trying to force pieces together. This can cause confusion. How many times have you read a sentence and then struggled to understand the point being made? As an example, consider the sentence, The women loved to cook, and there were three of them. When you read a sentence like that, do you wonder whether there is some significance to the fact that there were three wom en? Often a writer will connect two thoughts together that are not directly related. Sometimes this is done because he wants to include a fact and doesnt know where else to put it. In this example, if the writer needs to inform the reader that there were three women, it would be simpler to say, The three women loved to cook. In this way, the reader can file away the fact that there were three women, without wondering whether this fact has some special significance that he is missing.In the above example, if there is some special significance to the fact that there were three women, further explanation should be provided to make this clear. This can be done either in the same sentence or in a second sentence. For instance, The women loved to cook, and since there were three of them, the kitchen was often crowded. Or, The women loved to cook. Since there were three of them, this meant that the kitchen was often crowded. By using the words since and this meant, the reader clearly under stands the relationship between the fact that they loved to cook and the fact that there were three of them.In other cases, it may be that no relationship exists between two parts of a sentence. Two phrases may have been put together simply out of convenience. For example, The women loved to cook, and the sky was very dark that day. If these two phrases have no relationship, the reader will be confused. Even dividing them into separate sentences will not be enough. The reader will still be looking for a relationship. If none exists, he will feel that he has missed something. In this case, the whole paragraph may need to be revised, moving one of these pieces of the puzzle to a place where it makes more sense.To ensure that each sentence logically follows the one before, it may be helpful to think in terms of connective words. To continue a thought, you might use words like in addition, likewise, moreover, etc. To enumerate a list of facts you could use words or phrases such as initi ally, next, following this, etc. To show how one thing is the consequence of another, words like consequently, therefore, and admittedly might be helpful. Contrasts can be highlighted with words or expressions like however, on the other hand, nonetheless, in contrast, etc. Other connective words include certainly, obviously, undoubtedly, for example, in conclusion, finally, since, etc. These words might be used to connect two phrases together, or at the beginning of a sentence to connect it to the one before. Of course, it is not necessary to use a connective word for each sentence. It would probably sound strange if we did. Still, it is good to think in terms of connective words. It should be obvious that each sentence is connected to the one before it. It is helpful to read the piece out loud, perhaps with someone else listening. Does it flow smoothly? Does each sentence lead naturally to the next, or does it seem to jump from one point to another?To summarize, writing should be l ogical. It should be coherent, flowing smoothly from sentence to sentence and paragraph to paragraph. The reader should not have to guess at the relationship between subsequent statements. This is true regardless of the type of writing involved. Various methods can be used to organize our writing in a logical way, including chronological order, problem and solution, cause and effect, and a topical arrangement.If our writing is logical and coherent, we will have succeeded in reaching down into our personal well of truth, providing our readers with the waters of understanding.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Reflection of this course Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Reflection of this course - Essay Example Tentatively, it has given me the chance to have a critical outlook and view when pursuing facts and principles or ideas in my world. Secondly, I also enjoyed and took a lot of care and interest in the learning objective which required us to produce research materials for specific audiences. I find this issue to be of high relevance especially after being tasked with the privilege of doing annotated bibliography. I am of the humble and respectful opinion that I did well in composing the annotated bibliography of the source required of me. For instance, I did well in pin-pointing with an utmost precision the exact and intended destination of the academic materials that I considered. I also enjoyed the learning objective of using the print and digital media to speak to different people or audiences. I was guided and greatly helped to know that media is not just a form of passage of information and communication, but it is also a tool for contacting different people in diverse ways. It is to say that the objective was to introduce me to the field of knowing and treating people or relating to people differently by use of the different media tools and sources. Subsequently, it was an objective to integrate evidence from reading and then synchronize them with my own ideas and ideals in order to produce masterpiece and quality works. I am of the respectful view that I did that when I was composing the annotated bibliographies, I had the benefit of inculcating my knowledge with the clinical or academic knowledge present. I believe I excelled accordingly in those learning objectives which was attested when I gave my arguments while composing the annotated bibliography. On the contrary, there are goals that I would wish to put in more effort and energy so as to realize the best or maximum results. For instance, the goal of being able to read and think critically about the diverse cultural and social perceptions from the texts we read would have to be considered and